Distributed Networks Distributed Networks




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Lesson 1

Introduction to TCP/IP Networking Concepts

Question: What are the key TCP/IP networking concepts?
This module will cover the fundamental concepts of TCP/IP networking and how it relates to distributed computing.
By the end of this module, you will be able to:
  1. Describe in general terms the different layers in the TCP/IP protocol
  2. Understand the rules governing IP address classes and netmasks


The TCP/IP Model or Internet Reference Model, is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design.
It was created in the 1970s by DARPA for use in developing the Internet's protocols.
The structure of the Internet is still closely reflected by the TCP/IP model.
The TCP/IP reference model is the network model used in the current Internet architecture. It has its origins back in the 1960's with the grandfather of the Internet, the ARPANET. This was a research network sponsored by the Department of Defense in the United States. The following were seen as major design goals:
  1. ability to connect multiple networks together seamlessly
  2. ability for connections to remain intact as long as the source and destination machines were functioning
  3. to be built on flexible architecture
The reference model was named after two of its main protocols, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol). They choose to build a packet-switched network based on a connectionless internetwork layer.