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Lesson 3 Design decisions for a TCP/IP solution
Objective Define decisions that influence the design of a TCP/IP solution.

Design decisions for a TCP/IP solution


Windows 2000 uses TCP/IP for authentication processes, file and print services, information replication, and other common network functions such as communication in heterogeneous, multiple-vendor networks. Before you design a TCP/IP solution, you must identify the design decisions that influence the design.
To design a TCP/IP solution, you need to analyze:
  1. The number of hosts requiring IP connectivity
  2. The requirement for public and/or private IP addressing
  3. The number of physical subnets and routers
  4. The OSI layer 1 and 2 network configuration

The number of hosts requiring IP connectivity The number of host IP addresses you require will determine how you subnet your network, and might influence whether you use public or private IP addresses. When designing an IP solution for your network, you must always keep in mind the number of IP addresses required and the number of IP hosts desired on each logical subnet.
The requirement for public and/or private IP addressing You will likely need to use private IP addresses for any network larger than just a few hosts. This is because of the present shortage of public IP addresses. If you require a large number of host IP addresses for a new network, you will invariably be required to use private IP addresses.
The number of physical subnets and routers When planning your network design, you need to consider how and where your physical subnets will be located. Typically, your physical subnets will coincide with your logical subnets, although this certainly is not a requirement. When designing your TCP/IP solution, consider how many computers will be in a single collision domain and how you will segment broadcast traffic in order to optimize your IP network configuration.
The OSI layer 1 and 2 network configuration This continues with the concepts mentioned above. OSI layer 1 is the physical layer and OSI layer 2 is the datalink later. You need to consider what networking architectures you want to use. For example, you will need to consider if you should use ATM, Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, or Token Ring in your TCP/IP solution. In many cases, however, you will inherit a network infrastructure that will define the answers to these questions.



TCP/IP Features

The popularity of the TCP/IP protocols did not grow rapidly just because the protocols were there, or because connecting to the Internet mandated their use. They met an important need (worldwide data communication) at the right time, and they had several important features that allowed them to meet this need. These features are:
  1. Open protocol standards, freely available and developed independently from any specific computer hardware or operating system. Because it is so widely supported, TCP/IP is ideal for uniting different hardware and software components, even if you don’t communicate over the Internet.
  2. Independence from specific physical network hardware. This allows TCP/IP to integrate many different kinds of networks. TCP/IP can be run over an Ethernet, a DSL connection, a dial-up line, an optical network, and virtually any other kind of physical transmission medium.
  3. A common addressing scheme that allows any TCP/IP device to uniquely address any other device in the entire network, even if the network is as large as the worldwide Internet.
  4. Standardized high-level protocols for consistent, widely available user services. The next lesson explores some of the basic features of TCP/IP.