OSI Model: This International Standards Organization (ISO) OSI model incorporates the following qualities. It is designed to establish data-communications standards that promote multivendor interoperability.
It consists of seven layers, with a specific set of network functions allocated to each layer and guidelines for implementation of the interfaces between layers.
It specifies the set of protocols and interfaces to implement at each layer.
TCP/IP Model: TCP/IP is based on a four-layer reference model. All protocols that belong to the TCP/IP protocol suite are located in the top three layers of this model.
Each layer of the TCP/IP model corresponds to one or more layers of the seven-layer OSI reference model proposed by the ISO.
TCP/IP Protocol Suite: TCP/IP represents only two of the protocols that are commonly used on IP-based networks. TCP/IP is often referred to as a protocol suite because there are a number of different protocols used on IP-based networks that provide different network
services. When taken together, they represent a "suite," or group, of protocols.
ARP: (Address Resolution Protocol): performs IP address-to-Media Access Control (MAC) address resolution for outgoing packets.
As each outgoing IP datagram is encapsulated in a frame, source and destination MAC addresses must be added. Determining the destination MAC address for each frame is the responsibility of ARP.
IGMP: (Internet Group Management Protocol): helps communicate multicast group membership information to a Multicast Group Manager. It uses Windows sockets to send and receive IGMP traffic.
This protocol supports forwarding of IGMP messages over Windows 2000 routers.