Distributed Networks Distributed Networks





Internet Proxy Server - Glossary

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APIPA
(Automatic Private IP Addressing) A feature of the Windows 98 and Windows 2000 TCP/IP protocol that self-configures an IP address and subnet mask in the absence of a static configuration and a DHCP server. APIPA randomly selects a unique IP address from the range 169.254.0.1 through 169.254.255.254 and sets the subnet mask to 255.255.0.0. APIPA allows home users and small business users to create a functioning, single subnet TCP/IP network without having to manually configure the TCP/IP protocol or set up a DHCP server.
CERN
CERN is the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, where the first Web Browsers were developed. Browsers built to the CERN specifications can use the Web Proxy Service.
COM
(Component Object Model) A programming methodology.
DCOM
(Distributed Component Object Model) A programming methodology.
DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) A networking service used to assign IP addressing information to DHCP clients.
DHCP Allocator
A mini version of the Windows 2000 DHCP Server. The DHCP Allocator assigns IP Addresses and a limited number of DHCP options to DHCP Allocator Clients. It is used in conjunction with the NAT Server.
DMZ
(Demilitarized Zone) An internal subnet that is protected via firewalls and packet filtering that allows external network users access to the resources on that subnet, while preventing external users from accessing resources on other portions of the internal network.
FTP
(File Transfer Protocol) A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols, used to copy files between two computers on the Internet. Both computers must support their respective FTP roles: one must be an FTP client and the other an FTP server.
Glossary
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Gopher
A network service used in the past to allow users to search the contents site. Gopher has lost favor in most environments, but may still be encountered at some university sites.
HTTP
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is used to communication with Web Servers to transfer to the content of web pages to a web client, such as Microsoft® Internet Explorer.
HTTPS
(Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) HTTPS is used to protect the data moving to and from a secure web server.
IP
(Internet Protocol) An OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) Layer 3 protocol responsible for addressing and routing on TCP/IP based networks.
IPSec
(Internet Protocol Security) IPSec secures data transparently, below the Application layer. IPSec can be configured to provide data integrity, authentication and confidentiality.
IPX
(Internetwork Packet Exchange). The network layer protocol used to move data in IPX/SPX networks. Most commonly associated with NetWare Server environments.
ISDN
(Integrated Services Digital Network) A digital phone service originally intended to replace the analog phone system, now used to provide high-speed integrated voice, video and data services.
ISO
(International Organization for Standardization) This international organization works to provided global standards, including standards for networking technologies.
L2TP
(Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) L2TP combines PPTP and Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) to provide a virtual link between computers participating in a virtual network connection. L2TP tunnels support data encryption with IPSec.
LAN
(Local Area Network) A group of computers and other devices dispersed over a relatively limited area and connected by a communications link that allows one device to interact with any other on the network.
Layer-two
The OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) Layer 2 is the DataLink layer. The DoD-TCP/IP Layer 2 is the Internetwork Layer. Typically, when Layer 2 is discussed, the OSI model is assumed.
LDAP
(Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) The primary access protocol for Active Directory. LDAP version 3 is defined by a set of Proposed Standard documents in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFC 2251.
Microsoft Management Console
A framework for hosting administrative tools, called consoles. A console may contain tools, folders or other containers, World Wide Web pages, and other administrative items. These items are displayed in the left pane of the console, called a console tree. A console has one or more windows that can provide views of the console tree. The main MMC window provides commands and tools for authoring consoles. The authoring features of MMC and the console tree itself may be hidden when a console is in User Mode. Microsoft® Management Console is also called MMC.
MMC
(Microsoft® Management Console) A framework for hosting administrative tools, called consoles. A console may contain tools, folders or other containers, World Wide Web pages, and other administrative items. These items are displayed in the left pane of the console, called a console tree. A console has one or more windows that can provide views of the console tree. The main MMC window provides commands and tools for authoring consoles. The authoring features of MMC and the console tree itself may be hidden when a console is in User Mode. Microsoft® Management Console is also called MMC.
Multihomed Proxy Server
A Proxy Server with more than one network interface card.
NAT
(Network Address Translation) A NAT Server can receive Internet requests from hosts using private IP addresses and forward the requests from its external network connection. The NAT Server receives replies from the Internet server, and forwards those replies to the internal network client.
NNTP
(Network News Transfer Protocol) A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols used to distribute network news messages to NNTP servers and to NNTP clients (newsreaders) on the Internet. NNTP is designed so that news articles are stored on a server in a central database, thus enabling a user to select specific items to read.
Nonpersistent network segments
Segments that are connected on demand. For example, if you connect to remote offices via a VPN Gateway, the virtual link can be established on demand, and then the link can be dropped after a predetermined idle period. The destination network in this example would be considered a nonpersistent network segment.
Packet Filtering
Packet filtering is the process of examining the contents of the packet, and then accepting or rejecting the packet based on predefined rules.
Persistent network segments
Network segments that are always connected.
POP3
(Post Office Protocol Version 3) A protocol used by mail clients to receive Internet email from mail servers.
Port
A logical address that is used to define services available on a network server.
PPTP
(Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) PPTP is used to create Virtual Private Networks via encrypted tunnels, typically over the Internet.
Proxy Chaining
A hierarchical arrangement of Proxy Servers, used to optimize internetwork traffic and caching services.
Proxy Server array
Multiple Proxy Servers configured to answer requests from a shared Web Caching scheme. Arrays perform other proxy functions cooperatively.
RPC
(Remote Procedure Call) A message-passing facility that allows a distributed application to call services available on various computers on a network. Used during remote administration of computers. Remote procedure call is also called RPC.
SAM
(Security Account Manager) A Windows 2000 service used during the logon process. SAM maintains user account information, including groups to which a user belongs.
SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that governs the exchange of electronic mail between message transfer agents.
SNMP
A network protocol used to manage TCP/IP networks. In Windows®, the SNMP service is used to provide status information about a host on a TCP/IP network. Simple Network Management Protocol is also called SNMP.
SOCKS
SOCKS is a cross-platform mechanism that establishes secure communications between client and server computers.
SOCKS proxy
The SOCKS Proxy Services receives requests for Internet resources from SOCKS clients.
SPX
(Sequenced Packet Exchange) SPX is used as the Transport Layer protocol for IPX/SPX networks.
VPN Tunnels
(Virtual Private Network Tunnels) These are a means to transports encrypted data over public network. Virtual links are established between clients and servers using the tunneling protocol as the link protocol. Data transferred in the tunnel is encapsulated in the tunneling protocol.
Web proxy
The Web Proxy Service is available to CERN compliant browsers and provides HTTP, HTTPS, Gopher and FTP (Read) proxy services.
WinSock
(Windows Sockets) This is a session layer interface responsible for accepting requests from WinSock programs.
WinSock proxy
The WinSock Proxy Service provides proxy services to WinSock client requests for web resources.