In this module, we will cover the basic commands necessary to connect a UNIX machine to a network.
By the end of this module, you will be able to:
Internetworking with Linux has been the most popular choice of developers. Not only in the server world where Linux has made its mark but also in the small embedded
network OS market, Linux is the most popular choice. All this requires an understanding of the TCP/IP code base. Some products require implementation of
fi rewall, and others require implementation of IPSec. There are products that require modifi cations in the TCP connection code for load balancing in a clustered
environment. Some products require improving scalability on SMP machines. Most talked about is the embedded world, where networking is most popular. Real - time
embedded products have very specifi c requirements and need huge modifi cations to the stack as far as buffer management is concerned or for performance reasons.
All these require a complete understanding of stack implementation and the supporting framework.
As mentioned above, some of the embedded networking products require a minimum of the code to be complied because of the memory requirements. This
requirement involves knowledge of source code organization in the Linux source distribution. Once we know how the code is distributed, it becomes easier to fi nd
out the relevant code in which we are interested.
Mostly all the networking application work on very basic client-server technology.
The server is listening on a well- known port for connection requests while the client is sending out connection request to the server. Many complex
arrangements are made for security reasons or sometimes for load balancing to the client- server technology. But the basic implementation is a simple client server
program in which the client and server talk to each other.
For example, telnet or ftp services are accessed through the inet program which hides all the details of services. There are many tunable parameters available to tune your TCP/IP connections.
These can be used to best tune the connection without disturbing overall system wide tuning.
Most of the network applications are written to exchange data. Once a connection
is established, either
- the client sends data to the server or
- data flow in the opposite direction or may flow in both directions.
There are different ways to send and receive data over the connection. These different techniques may differ in the way that application blocks once the socket connection either receive or send
In this module we discuss only TCP and no other transport protocol. So, we need to understand the TCP connection process.
TCP is a connection-oriented protocol that has a set process for initializing connections, and similarly it has a set process for closing connection cleanly. TCP maintains state for the connection
because of handshakes during connection initiation and closure processes.
We need to understand the TCP states to completely understand the TCP connection process.
In this chapter we will present an overview of how the TCP/IP protocol stack is implemented on Linux. We need to understand the Linux operating system,
including the process, the threads, the system call, and the kernel synchronization mechanism.
All these topics are covered though not in great detail.
We also need to understand the application programming interface that uses a TCP/IP protocol stack for data transmission, which is discussed.
We discuss socket options with kernel implementation. Finally, we discuss the TCP state, which covers a three- way
handshake for opening connection and a four - way handshake for connection