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RPM verification and RPM output flags

The following table shows some of the various flags encountered in typical rpm output:
5 The file has changed (against an MD5 check).
S The file size has changed.
L The file's symbolic link status has changed.
T The file's modification time has changed.
D The file's device has changed.
UG The file's ownership has changed.
M The file's mode has changed.
c Indicates the file is a configuration file.

Installing and managing RPM files

When you get an application that is packaged in RPM format, you typically get a single file. The command used to work with RPM package files is rpm. To manage RPM packages, the rpm command has options that let you list all the packages that are installed, upgrade existing packages to newer versions, and query packages for information (such as the files or documentation included with the package). There is also a verify option that lets you check that all files that make up the package are present and unchanged. The rpm command has these modes of operation:

  1. install (--i)
  2. upgrade (--U)
  3. query (--q)
  4. verify (--V)
  5. signature check (−−checksig)
  6. uninstall (--e)
  7. build (--b)
  8. rebuild database (−−rebuilddb)
  9. fix permissions (−−setperms)
  10. set owners/groups (−−setugids)
  11. show RC (−−showrc)
With these options, you can install RPM packages and verify that their contents are properly installed, correcting any problems that occur. The following sections describe how to use rpm to install and work with your RPM applications. Caution You must be logged in as the root user to add or remove packages. You may, however, list installed packages, query packages for information, or verify a package's contents without being logged in as the root user.