| Lesson 5 || Elements of the BIND software |
| Objective ||Describe the Three Parts of the BIND Package. |
Describe the Three Parts of the BIND Package Software
Now that we have looked at using
nslookup, let's address the problem of setting up a name server on a UNIX computer.
The UNIX name server software (and most other implementations of name server software) derives from the package known as Berkeley Internet Name Daemon (BIND).
The BIND package has three parts:
- The name server process itself, usually called
- The configuration file for the name server process, usually called /etc/named.boot
- s for the name server
Name server data files
The data files for the name server include:
- A root cache file (called root.ca or root.cache). This file is used to prime the name server with the addresses of the root servers.
View the example below to see the version of this file in use in early 1998.
View Example: root cache file
Here is an example of a root cache file in use in early 1998. Note that the comments in the code below give URLs from which current versions of this file may be downloaded.
This file holds the information on root name servers needed initialize cache of Internet domain name servers (e.g. reference this file in the "cache .
<file>" configuration file of BIND domain name servers). This file is made available by InterNIC registration services under anonymous FTP as file /domain/named.root
;on server FTP.RS.INTERNIC.NET
;-OR- under Gopher at RS.INTERNIC.NET
;under menu InterNIC Registration Services
;submenu InterNIC Registration Archives
;last update: Aug 22, 1997
;related version of root zone: 1997082200
; formerly NS.INTERNIC.NET
;3600000 IN NS A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 184.108.40.206
; formerly NS1.ISI.EDU 3600000 NS B.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
B.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 220.127.116.11
; formerly C.PSI.NET
. 3600000 NS C.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
C.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 18.104.22.168
; formerly TERP.UMD.EDU
. 3600000 NS D.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
D.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 22.214.171.124
; formerly NS.NASA.GOV
. 3600000 NS E.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
E.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 126.96.36.199
; formerly NS.ISC.ORG
. 3600000 NS F.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
F.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 188.8.131.52
; formerly NS.NIC.DDN.MIL
. 3600000 NS G.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
G.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 184.108.40.206
; formerly AOS.ARL.ARMY.MIL
. 3600000 NS H.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
H.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 220.127.116.11
; formerly NIC.NORDU.NET
. 3600000 NS I.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
I.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 18.104.22.168
; temporarily housed at NSI (InterNIC)
. 3600000 NS J.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
J.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 22.214.171.124
; housed in LINX, operated by RIPE NCC
. 3600000 NS K.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
K.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 126.96.36.199
; temporarily housed at ISI (IANA)
. 3600000 NS L.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
L.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 188.8.131.52
; housed in Japan, operated by WIDE
. 3600000 NS M.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
M.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 184.108.40.206
; End of File
A zone file for the loopback zone. This tiny file is a zone file for the network address 127.0.0.1 (the loopback address.) A sample of this file is shown below. For other machines, no changes are necessary unless you want to change the responsible party.
This file follows the usual conventions for zone files; remember that the @ sign is a placeholder for information from the name server configuration file. We will discuss this idea in more detail later.
@ IN SOA localhost. root.localhost. (
1997022700 ; Serial
28800 ; Refresh
14400 ; Retry
3600000 ; Expire
86400 ) ; Minimum
IN NS localhost.
1 IN PTR localhost.
- If this server is authoritative for any zones, its data files include zone files for those zones.